Analyzing data qualitatively implies being able to interpret the meanings of them. A piece of information is any piece of information that can be studied. Now, the way the analysis is done is what determines the approach or perspective of the thesis. As we have repeated in several of our publications, the qualitative approach is characterized by the depth of its analysis, by its intention to reconstruct realities from a deciphering of the information that is collected from a specific context.
The analysis and the collection under this approach are carried out simultaneously, since it requires the researcher to actively intervene in the context where the research phenomenon or problem is located. And as the study progresses, the collection and analysis will be fine-tuned until reaching the level of depth and relevance that the subject requires.
To analyze the data qualitatively you must first give it a structure. Being these of a very diverse nature, they need an organizational form for their understanding. The one that is going away to interpret does not mean that this approach lacks an ordering. Although it is not rigorous in the hierarchy of procedures, it does not lack classifications for that reason. So, if your qualitative study and has data that come from documentary sources, oral, audiovisual or any other support, you should create a structure appropriate to your research problem.
CATEGORIZE TO THEN INTERPRET
The structure to which we refer is developed from categories of analysis by themes or patterns of meaning. These are created according to the purpose of your work and the research problem and serve to organize the large amount of data that has been collected. You must also include a category to include the experience of the people with respect to the study and their attitudes, it is very important that you use the same expressions of the participants and not yours.
REBUILD THE CONTEXT
When analyzing the data in a qualitative way, you must delve into the characteristics of the context. You can also create categories or classifications for everything related to the environment and its singularities. The reconstruction of the context will allow you to know the stories of the participants, that is, you can not separate them. You must be able to carry out studies from systematic levels, covering the entire field of study.
EXAMINE A DATA AND THEN ALL THE DATA
It is a complex work that requires a lot of patience to be able to analyze each piece of information fully. But this process is necessary because each piece of information is valuable in itself. You can not analyze the whole without first seeing the singularity of information, only in this way you can have a whole perspective. To reach depth in the analysis you must make the study more complex from the micro or the macro. If you understand each data separately, then you can develop relationships and interactions between them.
INCLUDE YOUR PERSPECTIVE OF ANALYSIS
To include this part you should think about the following: what the data tell you, what they mean or why such situations occur, how it is possible to reconstruct their meanings. Your perspective of analysis should include what is thought of the information collected and its connections with the exposed in the theoretical framework of your thesis. Thus, you will argue your results and conclusions.